Many competitive exams and government examinations are just around the corner. Central Teacher Eligibility Test will be conducted in July 2021 by CBSE. Aspirants are determined and ready to ace their exams. The science section covers the major part of the CTET exam. NCERT is also a great source for preparation and revision. To help you with your preparation, here are CTET study notes on Health and Diseases.
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Table of contents
What is Health?
The word health refers to a state of complete emotional and physical well-being. Healthcare exists to help people maintain this optimal state of health. According to WHO, “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” They further classified it as “A resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.”
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What is a Disease?
A disease is an abnormal condition affecting a living organism. Diseases are generally understood to be medical conditions that involve a pathological process associated with a specific set of symptoms. Localized diseases affect specific parts of the body; disseminated diseases spread to other parts of the body, and systemic diseases affect the entire body.
Types of Diseases
- Acute Disease -Acute diseases refer to the medical condition which occurs suddenly and lasts for a shorter period of time.
- Chronic Disease -Chronic diseases develop slowly and last for a lifetime. Chronic diseases are sometimes fatal.
Now that we know what disease is, and what are its types, let’s see different types of deficiency diseases and their causes.
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A balanced diet is extremely important for good health for a person. Any imbalance in the diet might lead to excess or inadequate intake of certain nutrients. Insufficient intake of a particular nutrient can lead to a deficiency disease.
Vitamin Deficiency Disease
Vitamin deficiency is the condition of lack of a vitamin in the body. It’s caused by not enough intake of vitamins, it is classified as a primary deficiency, whereas when due to an underlying disorder such as malabsorption it is called a secondary deficiency.
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Mineral Deficiency Diseases
Mineral deficiency is a lack of the minerals, the micronutrients that are needed for an organism’s proper health. The cause may be a poor diet, impaired uptake of the minerals that are consumed, or dysfunction in the organism’s use of the mineral after it is absorbed.
|Types of Vitamins||Deficiency diseases|
|A (Retinol)||Night blindness|
|B2 (Riboflavin)||Retarded growth, bad skin|
|C (Ascorbic acid)||Scurvy|
|K (Phylloquinone)||Excessive bleeding due to injury|
|Types of Minerals||Deficiency Diseases|
|Calcium||Brittle bones, excessive bleeding|
|Phosphorus||Bad teeth and bones|
|Iodine||Goitre, enlarged thyroid gland|
|Copper||Low appetite, retarded growth|
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Let’s discuss some food sources for vitamins and minerals.
It is an important micronutrient that is obtained from different food sources such as carrots, spinach, egg, liver, and fish. It is required for normal vision, reproduction, growth, and the healthy immune system of an individual.
- Vitamin B can be of different types, such as Vitamin B1, B2, B12, etc. The deficiency diseases depend on the type of Vitamin B that a person is lacking.
- Vitamin B1 food sources are peas, some fresh fruits (such as bananas and oranges), Nuts, and whole-grain bread.
- Vitamin B6 food sources are poultry such as chicken or turkey, some fish, peanuts, soya beans, and wheat germ.
- Vitamin B12 food sources are meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs.
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Vitamin C is important for immune system. Here are few sources of vitamin C:
- Citrus fruit, such as oranges
Food items that are a good source of Vitamin D are mentioned below:
- Oily fish – such as salmon, sardines, herring, and mackerel
- Red meat
- Egg yolks
For vitamin K food sources are spinach, broccoli, iceberg lettuce, and oils, soybean, and canola oil.
Lack of Iron will result anaemia. Iron is important for red blood cells and oxygen. Food sources for iron are :
- Beans and lentils
- Baked potatoes
- Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach
- Fortified breakfast cereals
Food source for iodine is fish, iodized salt, dairy products, etc.
Prevention of Deficiency Diseases
The deficiency diseases can be prevented in the following manner:
- Eat simple and eat food such as groundnut, soybean, pulses, etc
- Overcooked and undercooked food loses its nutritional value
- Keeping cut vegetables and fruits for a longer time also kills its nutritional values. Avoiding this can prevent deficiency diseases
- Fermentation and sprouting increase the nutritional value of food
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