CBSE Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12

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Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12

If you are preparing to appear for CBSE board exams 2021, then you must be looking forward to creating an effective and proper study plan. Having a detailed knowledge of the Chemistry syllabus for class 12 is extremely important for your preparation. Besides board exams, the syllabus will help students in their preparation for NEET and JEE. In this blog, we will give you a complete insight into the detailed course structure, period and marking scheme along with the syllabus for Chemistry. 

Course Structure and Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12

Science students whether PCM or PCB are advised to study the latest CBSE Chemistry syllabus class 12 thoroughly. All the units and topics mentioned in each unit are available in class 12 Chemistry textbook issued by NCERT

Also Read: Branches of Chemistry

CBSE Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12
CBSE Chemistry Syllabus for Class 12

Let us study which units and chapters are included in the Chemistry syllabus for class 12: 

Unit I Solutions

  • Types of Solutions
  • Expressing Concentration of Solutions
  • Solubility: Solid in a Liquid, Gas in a Liquid 
  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions: Liquid-liquid Solutions, Raoult’s Law as a special case of Henry’s Law, Solutions of Solids in Liquids
  • Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions
  • Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass: Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure, Elevation of Boiling Point, Depression of Freezing Point, Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure, Reverse Osmosis and Water Purification
  • Abnormal Molar Masses

Unit II Electrochemistry

  • Electrochemical Cells
  • Galvanic Cells: Measurement of Electrode Potential
  • Nernst Equation: Equilibrium Constant from the Nernst Equation, Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of the Reaction
  • Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions: Measurement of the Conductivity of Ionic Solutions, Variation of Conductivity and Molar Conductivity with Concentration
  • Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis: Products of Electrolysis
  • Batteries: Primary Batteries, Secondary Batteries
  • Fuel Cells
  • Corrosion

Unit III Chemical Kinetics

  • Rate of a Chemical Chemical Reaction Reaction
  • Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction Rate of a Reaction: Dependence of Rate on Concentration, Rate Expression and Rate Constant, Order of a Reaction, Molecularity of a Reaction
  • Integrated Rate Equations: Zero Order Reactions, First Order Reactions, Half-Life of a Reaction
  • Pseudo First Order Reaction Reaction
  • Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction: Effect of Catalyst
  • Collision Theory of Chemical Chemical Reactions

Unit IV Surface Chemistry

  • Adsorption: Distinction between Adsorption and Absorption, Mechanism of Adsorption, Types of Adsorption, Adsorption Isotherms, Adsorption from Solution Phase, Applications of Adsorption
  • Catalysis: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis, Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Shape-selective Catalysis by Zeolites, Enzyme Catalysis, Catalysts in Industry
  • Colloids
  • Classification of Colloids based on Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium, Nature of Interaction between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium, Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multimolecular, Macromolecular and Associated Colloids
  • Preparation of Colloids
  • Purification of Colloidal Solutions
  • Properties of Colloidal Solutions
  • Emulsions
  • Colloids Around Us Around Us

Unit V General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

  • Occurrence of Occurrence of Metals
  • Concentration of Ores: Hydraulic Washing, Magnetic Separation, Froth Floatation Method, Leaching
  • Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
  • Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy and Applications
  • Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Refining: Distillation, Liquification, Electrolytic Refining, Zone Refining, Vapour Phase Refining, Chromatographic Methods
  • Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

Unit VI p-Block Elements

  • Group 15 Elements: Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Atomic and Ionic Radii, Ionisation Enthalpy, Electronegativity, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties
  • Dinitrogen
  • Ammonia
  • Oxides of Nitrogen
  • Nitric Acid
  • Phosphorus-allotropic Forms
  • Phosphine Phosphine
  • Phosphorus Halides: Phosphorus Trichloride, Phosphorus Pentachloride
  • Oxoacids of Phosphorus
  • Group 16 Elements: Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Atomic and Ionic Radii, Ionisation Enthalpy, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Electronegativity, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties
  • Dioxygen
  • Simple Oxides
  • Ozone
  • Sulphur – Allotropic Forms
  • Sulphur Dioxide
  • Oxoacids of Sulphur
  • Sulphuric Acid
  • Group 17 Elements: Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Atomic and Ionic Radii, Ionisation Enthalpy, Electron Gain Enthalpy, Electronegativity, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties
  • Chlorine
  • Hydrogen Chloride
  • Oxoacids of Halogens
  • Interhalogen Compounds
  • Group 18 Elements: Occurrence, Electronic Configuration, Ionisation Enthalpy, Atomic Radii, Electron Gain Enthalpy

Unit VII d -and f-Block Elements

Transition Elements (d-Block)
  • Position in the Periodic Table
  • Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
  • General Properties of the Transition Elements: Physical Properties, Variation in Atomic and Ionic Sizes of Transition Metals, Ionisation Enthalpies, Oxidation States, Trends in the M2+/M Standard Electrode Potentials, Trends in the M3+/M2+ Standard Electrode Potentials, Trends in Stability of Higher Oxidation States, Chemical Reactivity and EV Values, Magnetic Properties, Formation of Coloured Ions, Formation of Complex Compounds, Catalytic Properties, Formation of Interstitial Compounds, Alloy Formation
  • Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements: Oxides and Oxoanions of Metals
Inner Transition Elements (f-Block)
  • Lanthanoids: Electronic Configurations, Atomic and Ionic Sizes, Oxidation States, General Characteristics
  • Actinoids: Electronic Configurations, Ionic Sizes, Oxidation States, General Characteristics and Comparison with Lanthanoids
  • Some Applications of d- and f-Block Elements

Unit VIII Coordination Compounds

  • Wener’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds:  Coordination Entity, Central Atom/ion, Ligands, Coordination Number, Coordination Sphere, Coordination Polyhedron, Oxidation Number of Central Atom, Homoleptic and Heteroleptic Complexes
  • Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds: Formulas of Mononuclear Coordination Entities, Naming of Mononuclear Coordination Compounds
  • Isomerism in Coordination Compounds: Geometric Isomerism, Optical Isomerism, Linkage Isomerism, Coordination Isomerism, Ionisation Isomerism, Solvate Isomerism
  • Bonding in Coordination Compounds: Valence Bond Theory, Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds, Limitations of Valence Bond Theory, Crystal Field Theory, Colour in Coordination Compounds, Limitations of Crystal Field Theory
  • Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
  • Stability of Coordination Compounds
  • Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds   

Unit IX Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  • Classification: Number of Halogen Atoms, Compounds Containing sp3 C—X Bond (X= F, Cl, Br, I), Compounds Containing sp2 C—X Bond
  • Nomenclature
  • Nature of C-X Bond
  • Methods of Preparation: From Alcohols and Hydrocarbons, Halogen Exchange
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions: Reactions of Haloalkanes, Reactions of Haloarenes
  • Polyhalogen Compounds: Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride), Trichloromethane (Chloroform), Triiodomethane (Iodoform), Tetrachloromethane (Carbon tetrachloride),  Freons, p,p’-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 

Unit X Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

  • Classification: Mono, Di, Tri or Polyhydric Compounds, Ethers 
  • Nomenclature
  • Structure of Functional Groups
  • Alcohols and Phenols: Preparation of Alcohols (from Carbonyl Compounds and Grignard reagents, Preparation of Phenols (from Haloarenes, Benzenesulphonic acid, Diazonium Salts and Cumene), Physical Properties, Chemical Reactions (involving cleavage of O–H bond, carbon-oxygen (C–O) bond in alcohols), Reactions of Phenols
  • Some Commercially Important Alcohols: Methanol and Ethanol
  • Ethers: Preparation of Ethers (by Dehydration of Alcohols and Williamson Synthesis), Physical Properties, Chemical Reactions (Cleavage of C–O bond in Ethers and Electrophilic Substitution)

Unit XI Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

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  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones: Preparation of Aldehydes, Preparation of Ketones 
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions: Nucleophilic Addition Reactions, Reduction, Oxidation, Reactions due to α-hydrogen, Cannizzaro Reaction, Electrophilic Substitution Reaction 
  • Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
  • Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids: From Primary Alcohols and Aldehydes, Alkylbenzenes, Nitriles and Amides, Grignard Reagents, Acyl Halides and Anhydrides, Esters
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions: Reactions Involving Cleavage of O–H Bond, Reactions Involving Cleavage of C–OH Bond, Reactions Involving –COOH Group, Substitution Reactions in the Hydrocarbon Part
  • Uses of Carboxylic Acids

Unit XII Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

Amines
  • Structure, Classification and Nomenclature of Amines
  • Preparation of Amines: Reduction of nitro compounds, Ammonolysis of alkyl halides, Reduction of nitriles, Reduction of amides, Gabriel phthalimide synthesis, Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions: Basic Character of Amines, Alkylation, Acylation, Carbylamine Reaction, Reaction with Nitrous Acid, Reaction with Aryl sulphonyl Chloride, Electrophilic Substitution
Diazonium Salts
  • Methods of Preparation of Diazonium Salts
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions: Reactions involving Displacement of Nitrogen and Retention of Diazo Group
  • Importance of Diazonium Salts in the Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

Unit XIII Biomolecules

  • Carbohydrates: Classification, Monosaccharides, Preparation and Structure of Glucose, Cyclic Structure of Glucose, Structure of Fructose, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides, Importance of Carbohydrates
  • Proteins: Amino Acids (Classification), Structure and Denaturation of Protein
  • Enzymes: Mechanism of Enzyme Action
  • Vitamins: Classification 
  • Nucleic Acids: Chemical Composition, Structure and Biological Functions of Nucleic Acids

Unit XIV Polymers

  • Classification of Polymers based on Source, Structure of Polymers, Mode of Polymerisation, Molecular Forces, Growth Polymerisation
  • Types of Polymerisation: Addition Polymerisation or Chain Growth Polymerisation,  Condensation Polymerisation or Step Growth Polymerisation, Copolymerisation, Rubber
  • Molecular Mass of Polymers 
  • Biodegradable Polymers
  • Polymers of Commerical Importance

Unit XV Chemistry in Everyday Life

  • Drugs and their Classification
  • Drug-target Interaction: Enzymes as Drug Targets, Receptors as Drug Targets
  • Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs: Antacids, Antihistamines, Neurologically Active Drugs, Antimicrobials, Antifertility Drugs
  • Chemicals in Food: Artificial Sweetening Agents, Food Preservatives 
  • Cleansing Agents: Soaps, Synthetic Detergents

Besides understanding the Chemistry syllabus for class12, also read how to ace Chemistry practical in class 12th

Bonus [Other Syllabus for Class 11th and 12th]

Now that you are familiar with the detailed CBSE Chemistry syllabus for class 12, ensure to finish each and every unit and concept with maximum efficiency. To know more about the scope of Chemistry after 12th, talk to us at Leverage Edu and we can help you in finding a university that will help in magnifying your scientific potential.

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